When fraud strikes manufacturers, the effects can be devastating.
The median fraud loss in the manufacturing sector, one of the industries most affected by fraud, was $198,000, according to the 2020 Report to the Nations published by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE). That's significantly higher than the median fraud loss for all industries ($150,000).
Here are some other key findings from the latest biennial ACFE report:
Common Fraud Schemes
Over the years, the ACFE has identified three methods of occupational fraud:
- Asset misappropriation: In these schemes, dishonest employees access and misuse assets for their personal gain. For example, they might steal company funds, inflate expense reports or engage in fake billing scams.
- Corruption: This is abuse of business privileges enabling an employee to gain a direct or indirect benefit. Examples include bribery and manipulation of conflicts of interest.
- Financial statement fraud: Here, the employee intentionally causes a misstatement or omission of material information in financial reports. For example, a fraudster might record fictitious revenues, understate expenses or inflate assets.
According to the 2020 Report to the Nations, asset misappropriation occurred in roughly 86% of the cases. Though misappropriation schemes are the most frequent fraud technique, they resulted in the lowest median loss ($100,000). Conversely, financial statement fraud took place less frequently (in 10% of cases), but it had the highest median loss ($954,000).
For manufacturers, the most common fraud schemes include:
- Corruption (50%),
- Billing schemes (23%),
- Theft of non-cash assets, such as inventory or fixed assets, (23%), and
- Inflated expense reimbursements (20%).
Important: The total adds up to more than 100% because incidents may involve more than one type of fraud scheme.
The median loss from corruption crimes was $200,000. This could help explain why the median fraud loss for manufacturers was higher than the overall median for all industries.
Methods of Detection
More than 40% of the frauds in the 2020 report were unearthed by tips. About half of those tips came from employees. But customers and suppliers can also be valuable sources of fraud tips. Other common methods of detection include internal audit (15% of cases) and management review (12% of cases).
The ACFE concludes: "When fraud is detected proactively, it tends to be detected more quickly and thus causes lower losses, while passive detection results in lengthier schemes and increased financial harm to the victim. Anti-fraud controls such as account reconciliation, internal audit departments, involved management review, and active cultivation of tips are all tools that can lead to more effective detection of occupational fraud."
While the median duration of a fraud is 14 months, averages differ based on the type of fraud. Usually, non-cash, cash on hand, skimming and corruption fraud is caught in less than 24 months. Billing, expense reimbursement, register disbursements, check and payment tampering, payroll and financial statement frauds typically take about two years before being discovered. Naturally, the longer fraud goes undetected, the larger the financial loss.
Profile of Perpetrators
The 2020 report shows that higher-ups are responsible for larger crimes. Although owners or executives perpetrated only 20% of the frauds in the study, the median loss in those cases amounted to $600,000 — much higher than losses caused by managers and mid-to-lower-level employees. This is attributed mainly to wide-ranging access to funds. Similarly, frauds committed by long-time employees resulted in greater losses than ones caused by relative newcomers.
Age and gender were also among the most significant factors. More than half of the perpetrators (53%) were between the ages of 30 and 45, but median losses trended higher for older fraudsters. Also, males committed 70% of the frauds and the median loss for male perpetrators ($150,000) was almost double the median for females ($80,000).
Methods of Prevention
Manufacturers are less likely to incur fraud losses if they learn how to identify potential fraud risk and adopt an effective system of internal controls for combatting fraud.
In particular, the ACFE recommends keeping an eye out for employees who engage in one or more of the following high-risk behaviors:
- Living beyond their means (42% of cases),
- Exhibiting financial difficulties (26% of cases),
- Having unusually close association with a vendor or customer (19% of cases),
- Displaying excessive control issues or an unwillingness to share duties (15% of cases),
- Being unusually irritable, suspicious or defensive (13% of cases),
- Reflecting shrewd or unscrupulous behavior (13% of cases), and
- Being recently divorce or experiencing family problems (12% of cases).
In 45% of the cases in the 2020 report, the fraudster had a record of other work misconduct issues, such as bullying, absenteeism or tardiness. Furthermore, the report stated that lack of internal controls contributed to almost one-third of frauds. Be aware that annual financial statements audits aren't specifically designed to detect fraud. Your management team is responsible for the internal controls it employs.
Important: Smaller firms face different challenges in preventing fraud and implementing anti-fraud controls than larger entities. The most common anti-fraud controls — external audit of financial statements and code of conduct — were evident in 56% and 48% of small businesses with fewer than 100 employees, respectively, compared to 92% and 91% for larger companies.
Fortunately, fraud prevention measures don't necessarily require you to spend an arm and a leg. For instance, a manufacturing firm might adopt a written code of conduct, require its managers to review procedures and institute anti-fraud training for all employees. In addition, you may rely on external consultants to perform independent fraud testing, when appropriate, to address these concerns.
In the current business environment, manufacturing firms must reevaluate internal controls, policies and operating procedures, training assessments and risk identification. Since the situation remains fluid, your company should be prepared to react quickly to minimize potential losses. If you suspect suspicious activity, contact us to help evaluate the situation.